Analyzing Concept of Teamwork in Healthcare :Theories of Effective Teamwork Essay

Analyzing Concept of Teamwork in Healthcare :Theories  of Effective Teamwork Essay

Teamwork is essential in the completion of a task. It is associated with efficient care, patient safety, and better working environments. To get an efficient understanding of effective teamwork, this research will focus partly on the health environment comprising doctors and nurses. Statistics and previous research has shown that when healthcare professionals talk about teamwork in conducting their work, only 37% work in teams.

The healthcare sector, as an example, proves that organizations that perceive their work as teamwork are not doing so if their work is critically analyzed through an academic lens. Therefore, to ease the burden put on the word teamwork, it is argued that subsidiary words could be used to define better work done by teams. These words include; collaboration, networking, and coordination. Therefore, the research focuses on the doctor's conceptualizations of teamwork in understanding teamwork.

Understanding the concept of Teamwork 

The concept of teamwork in practice gets misguided when team members acquire different interpretations of the purpose of the team's work and their role individually. The different perspectives of team members produce different priorities from those of the team. Insufficient communication could be one of the barriers that hinder effective teamwork.

It could be brought about by little know-how of the other professions within the team. Insufficient knowledge of team members with professional differences in the healthcare system leads to a difference in the result expectations. However, understanding teamwork leads to an increased positive interpretation of situations and, in turn, helps team members on how to react to those situations.

The conceptualization of Teamwork in Healthcare

In conceptualizing teamwork, professionals have evaluated teamwork in other fields. Professionals learn that every organization has different concepts of teamwork. In healthcare, for example, open communication and the safety of patients are associated with the different levels of psychological safety within the team. Leadership is one factor defining the success of teamwork (Erlingsdottir G. et al., 2018). In this context, leadership is identified as an influence to other team members in what is supposed to be done by the team.

It is important to note that team leadership does not solely lean on one individual member of the team. It is spread across the team, with each member contributing differently towards the benefit of the situation. Doctors in the healthcare sector are often identified as team leaders and therefore required to frame a situation to their understanding and the interpretation of other members. It helps to influence how the rest of the team will interpret and manage the situation.

Theories of effective Teamwork in Healthcare

Several theories are related to effective teamwork. The theories include Tuckman theory and Belbin theory which effectively help describe the teamwork process that leads to its success. These theories entail stages of team development which are discussed further in the report. It creates a procedure for a team's formation upto its maturity. It helps train people to lead a group to its full potential.

The healthcare system and the social care sector have managed to utilize these theories to enhance team relations and conflict resolutions within the team. Doctors, as leaders of the healthcare teams, understand that the team members are treated as a unit and cannot be blamed as individuals for actions taken.

They are termed as a section of the whole. Belbin’s theory, on the other hand, discusses the understanding of roles within the team. The roles help team members improve their strengths and help manage their weaknesses. Belbin discusses the leadership roles and the team members' roles within the team. Identifying the strengths and weaknesses of team members enables the team to communicate, work together and understand each other.

Teamwork for Practical and Increase Productivity in Healthcare

Benefits of working in a team- For a team to be practical and increase productivity, several factors must be applied. Quality of collaboration, shared mental models, coordination, communication and leadership are the main factors of teamwork. A team is efficient where there are good social relationships between its members.

At the organizational level, a team must have a clear goal, specified tasks, roles among team members, an appropriate culture, and good leadership. Those mentioned above define the characteristics of teamwork. In realizing the benefits of teamwork, observations taken from the ICU and E.D. could describe them adequately. Teamwork depends on establishing clear roles for its members, interdependence within the team, and integration of members (Reeves et al. 2018). In the ICU, doctors react that even though each member has a specific role or skill, they still have to work together.

It means that the roles assigned to the team members must ultimately lead to recent results. While in a team, there is the benefit of psychological safety. In a team environment that provides a sense of trust, team members can ask questions or clarification that help increase their knowledge and enhance great team results. The team cannot provide results when a member cannot seek clarification.

Teamwork and leadership in Healthcare Sectors

For a team to work, it has to have a specified leader. There are various benefits of working as a leader and a team member. Knowing that a leader is a sum or part of the whole is also essential. In the case of the healthcare team, the leader is usually the doctor. The benefit of the leadership position in a team is that one can understand that although they are efficient as individuals, they need the other members to attain the desired results.

Working as a team leader helps to steer the group in the needed direction. Leadership positions give the team a united voice that is unbiased, and members identify it as the overall authority (Crunk, J., 2018). The team leader facilitates and reminds the team about its objectives to protect the loss of focus. as a leader in a team of professionals, it is essential to note that a leader needs confidence in the decision-making process but does not need to rely on their expert opinion solely.

Participation,Benefits to Members of Healthcare

Participating in a team as a team member also has its benefits. A team cannot work without some of its parts. Members have specific interdependent roles that they play to achieve the ultimate purpose. A team member can practice the art of social relationships, get a proper direction of work, and pick up some skills within the team.

For instance, a doctor in the ICU who is the team leader provides instructions to the team members, each with a different role. The provision of these instructions is shared within the group; therefore, members gain skills through hearing and observation. For conflict resolution purposes, a team member can learn how to handle conflict through team leader involvement and understanding of each member's specific roles.

The Goal achievement with Healthcare Groups

Group effectiveness theories that enhance teamwork efficiency in achieving goals include the group strategic therapy theory and the group dynamics theory. Clinicians majorly involve themselves with practical group psychotherapy as a form of treatment. Leadership pieces of training have been aroused mainly due to the concept in the group dynamics theory. Social scientists have involved the theory in leadership training and group mentorship programs.

The group dynamics theory evaluates each group member's purpose and functions to fulfill their ultimate purpose or goals. It is also related to the systems theory. The theory describes that teams have to go through cycle states that hinder the completion of their objectives. A team member's actions cannot be judged solely but are examined as a section of the whole team with a shared perspective (Ratliff et al., 2019). A team goes through various stages that lead to its development.

The stages are affected by the group dynamics. The stages are; forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. In the forming stage, this is where a team is created. In the storming stage, the initial members of the team head out to find similar people with similar interests or professions. In the norming stage, the team comes together to discuss its norms and creates them.

The performing stage is the critical part where tasks are performed with the team members' participation to accomplish particular goals. The adjourning stage is where the team is disbanded after goal achievement. An influential group has to realize its roles. Every group generally has two roles. Leadership roles and members’ roles. The two roles need to work cohesively to achieve group goals. The norms of a group are critical in maintaining or disbanding group cohesiveness.
The collaborative behavior model for anticipation of human behavior

Healthcare teams relate to models and concepts of O.B., which make the members correlate efficiently with each other. There is the collaborative behavior model, which is involved the anticipation of human behavior. As a team, it is viable and efficient for team members to be able to predict the behavior of fellow team members to perform tasks efficiently (Lowe, 2022). The leader's behavior needs to be predictable to ensure the team members know what exactly to expect from their leader even in their temporary absence.

The leader is also equipped to predict their members' behavior when additional help or information is needed (Ratliff et al., 2019). For instance, a doctor, as the team leader, needs to understand each team member's role and predict their behavior by understanding their character. It would help them control conflicts within the team or poor communication. It would also enhance a secure climate for team members to ask questions in case they do not understand.

The other model is the dynamic network model (Lowe, 2022). It involves understanding the team behavior sufficiently through a series of interactions between team members. It also measures how behaviors are responsible for the interaction patterns as they perform tasks over time. The model was, for example, applied in the National Basketball Association (NBA) to assess team processes and network analysis between group members.

The research found that mutual transitive passing patterns enabled win predictions for teams. Player passing patterns were a result of team members learning the behavior pattern of each other and therefore were able to pass the ball effectively compared to players that had not played together for some time as a team.


In conclusion, effective team working has been proved to influence behavior patterns in the workplace. It has resulted in efficiency in the accomplishment of the organization's goals. Leadership training has arisen mainly due to the concept of the group dynamics theory. Social scientists have involved the theory in leadership training and group mentorship programs. A team is efficient where there are good social relationships between its members.

At the organizational level, a team needs to have a clear goal, specified tasks, clear and specified roles within team members, an appropriate culture, and good leadership. The healthcare sector, as an example, proves that organizations that perceive their work as teamwork are not doing so if their work is critically analyzed through an academic lens. One of the factors that define the success of teamwork is leadership.

Team leadership does not solely lean on one individual member of the team. It is spread across the team, with each member contributing differently towards the benefit of the situation. Tuckman’s model has limitations in that it has sometimes not managed to work to its full potential as predicted. Most teams do not come out of their storming stage.

However, they might transition to the norming stage but move back to the storming stage. However, Tuckman's theory has been helpful in the healthcare system and the social care context in that it has helped build good social relationships between group members.


REFERENCES

Crunk, J., 2018. Examining Tuckman's Team Theory in Non-collocated Software Development Teams Utilizing Collocated Software Development Methodologies (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University).

Lowe, A.P., 2022. Understanding Teamwork Using Dynamic Network Models

Fishman, A., Paxton, C., Yang, W., Fox, D., Boots, B., and Ratliff, N., 2019. Collaborative behavior models for optimized human-robot teamwork. arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.04339.

Tasca, G.A., Mikail, S.F. and Hewitt, P.L., 2021. Group therapy theory and group psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy stages of development. American Psychological Association.

Rydenfält, C., Borell, J. and Erlingsdottir, G., 2018. What do doctors mean when they talk about teamwork? Possible implications for interprofessional care. Journal of interprofessional care.


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